Brazil, the USA, Argentina, and Ukraine together are responsbile for around 85% of global maize exports.
Exports from Ukraine have been restricted since the start of the war, due to limited export capacity and a smaller harvest in September 2022. Low harvests in Argentina and the US further limited global exports.
Under the Black Sea grain agreement, Ukraine has exported almost eight million tonnes of maize so far in 2023, but the agreement could end on 18 May, reducing global maize supplies. Ukraine could continue to export maize through its rivers and its neighbour’s ports, but volumes would be lower.